Jun 2023
A presentation of the project Translate Real Estate will take place as an exhibition in New York in the summer.

Nov 2022
A Conversation about What is Research? has been recorded by Semi Hwang.

Aug 2022
What is Research?, edited by Peter N. Miller, has been published. 

Jun 2023
A presentation of the project Translate Real Estate will take place as an exhibition in New York in the summer.

Nov 2022
Conversation about What is Research? has been recorded by Semi Hwang.

Aug 2022
What is Research? edited by Peter N. Miller has been published. 

Tuesday, May 9, 2023 
03:20PM – 04:20PM
The Tomb in the basement of 36 Edgewood

7min 30sec.  Reading and Copying Personal Copy
7min 30sec.  Screening Swing 
2min.  Introducing Translate Real Estate

Consider a poster made by carving out aluminum foil1434, 1435, deconstructed spreads being read in different directions10, a table-top video of the language of things themselves when humans are not around11, 12, a vertically stacked Latin typeface16–19, a score that is an iterated translation from recordings15, data replaced with ghost particles26–34, and a chatbot that replaces labor25.

With my archival impulses1 and compulsive tendencies, I am mainly concerned with a dedication to collecting, archiving, and presenting data sets of the environment. There is a kind of sci-fi techno-utopianism to it all. My attachment to the grid, its relentless iteration, and transliteration of technologically coherent forms re-rendered as poetic presents the world as a landscape of synthetic fragments641–1119.

In the digital economy, archives are conceived of as fluid data accumulated in a form that can be accessed almost instantaneously and easily modified. But archives are also authentic, a category circumscribed by precise customs of access and use. It is about a particular structure or a particular hierarchy. This might be a place where my work operates1381–1419.

In my practice, I try to capture every minor discrepancy between data and data using streaming or simultaneous technologies.
• I present extensive data sets ordered and arranged on the baseline1428, 1429.
• I pull up the data jumps from the ground as active, even volatile11, 12.
• I represent data of the surface in dynamic form14.
• I return ephemeral and tentative data on the grid evenly1200–1202.

These responses to the crevices between data indicate the will to disrupt the conventional relationships between design components. It is in the oscillation between the general and the specific, the private and the communal, the temporal and the spiritual, the useful and the useless, the dystopian and the utopian, that the archive will unfold1541.2

Conceptually, my work is closely intertwined with notions of resistance.3 Because it is not printed, it resists chemicals.1434, 1435 By documenting, it reproduces the time. As part of repeated and bland labor, it resists creativity. With an enigmatic narrative, it resists graphic design35–274. By disturbing the customary ways of reading, it resists ways of seeing the book275–334.4 As the aural detritus of everyday life, it defies notions of sound335–640.

I’ve been trained within the world of design, art, and publishing, but I try to unravel what is not allowed within the system while focusing on the personal and individual nature of my utterance position. Design work can have subjectivity, interpretation, intervention, and adaption. In other words, I am responding to the inconsistencies between an organizational structure like the grid and the image of the sky1–7.5

Therefore when I approach the discrepancy between the grid and the sky, I can't help but bring my associations between them. Furthermore, these stairs also changed my status upon closer inspection with scale shifts, making them animated and cartoon-like. The discrepancy ultimately reveals information that has yet another status as an image and requires yet another reading from the viewer26–34.

This elucidates a variety of diverse differences in readership and the fundamental infrastructure by which we access information1531–1540. It remains vestiges and restores labor1443–1529. Everything was rigorously mediated as a strategy, method, and subject, but this entails bodies, movements, and fiction. I respond with flat, dry, detailed, reliable data about the hierarchy.

I am now firmly on the ground again, coming back from an invisible bias. By having to identify unequal or hierarchical discrepancies, I prefer that incomplete material itself becomes archival. All my practice is to think slowly of matter as vibrant, live, active, or moving.6 With my graphic design practice, I believe personal narrative naturally leads to public discourseConversation.

1420–1427Untitled, 2021. Photographs. Archival inkjet printing, 11 × 8.5 inches each, set of 8.
1430–1433Paprika! Volume 7, Issue 01 The Moment Before, 2021. Publication. Offset lithography, 25 × 22.75 inches, 1000 edition.
9Cushing No. 2, 2021. Typeface. Dimensions variable.
Cushing No. 2 was one of the typefaces produced by Cushing Publishing company. I explored the delicate nature of this type and its rounded yet sturdy forms. The clustered serifs have the look of ink smudges and the feel of being printed on paper. And there is almost no contrast between the vertical and horizontal lines, but this neutral feeling was also attractive.
The most challenging aspect of drawing this typeface was the standard between sharpness and roundness—I had to decide when to be sharp and when to be round. And the source material for these typefaces speaks in an uneven ratio of type width. By reinterpreting these movements, I created a dynamic and constant movement within this still script. It was also valuable to create different punctuation marks with a contemporary sensibility.
1434, 1435Visiting Artist Lecture in Photography: Thilde Jensen, 2021. Poster. Carving on aluminum foil, 11 × 8.5 inches each, 4 edition.
Thilde Jensen used to wrap her camera in aluminum foil and hold it in her hand when she was working because of an environmental illness, and all her work is still affected by it. Since printing ink is also a chemical, I made the poster without printing. Instead, I carved the information by hand on 18-inch-wide aluminum foil. The four editions of the poster differed in the degree to which they were physically crumpled, and they all had different engraved shapes. Also, the aluminum foil reflected the light in that environment, depending on where they were installed.
10, 275–334Untitled (Shubert Theater), 2021. Publication, Video. Single-channel HD video, color, sound, 1 minutes 10 seconds.
Theatron, “a place where things are seen and done” in Greek, gave us the theater concept, a space where human behavior can be observed. By articulating an interest in bodies, movements, and fiction, I sought to reorient the spread “as a theatre space.”
Spreads are created by placing the verso and recto sides horizontally and vertically each. The crevices and rooms between the pages are interpreted as a medium connecting different times of Shubert Theater. Building a spread direction represents restructuring the context. For pieces to be repeated and overlapped, they had to be repeatedly descrambled, deconstructed, and rebuilt.
Reading these spreads is a physical act of responding, flipping, and viewing the experience similarly, and a mimicry highlighting the increase of scale based on the gestures. The documentation I produced by filming the deconstructed spreads being turned at different scales from overhead was a way of communicating this gestural approach.
35–274Vibrant Matter, 2021. Video. Single-channel HD video, color, sound, 4 minutes 7 seconds.
Seeing substances from a human point of view creates a hierarchical relationship of power and is unequal. Therefore, for materials and humans to coexist, we must think from the standpoint of matters.
I researched and explored the world of intermediate materials and created a short play to represent a dialogue of material atoms without humans. This video attempts to think of the language of matter as living, active, or moving.
Imagine a condensation; water vapor in the warm air condenses into flowing droplets on the surface of a cold bottle. The mass inside the bottle has not changed; the moisture on the surface has not escaped from the inside. It looks as if the water is communicating quietly and carefully, as if it had penetrated a water bottle. I have witnessed communal relationships through temperature, density, and movement of matter, especially air and water.
11, 12Vibrant Matter, 2021. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable.
The project has evolved into multiple digital forms—a library of Vibrant Matter. Image, sound, scripts, and the index are a layered component of the web, among which are documents of the play. Each part is isolated and mechanically operated—the materials move randomly, and the script and the sound are synchronized simultaneously. The index contains extensive excerpts, poems, novels, and my writings responding to the play. By circulating these materials, visitors can navigate this web through the compilation of intersecting and overlapping images, sound, and script.
1381–1419Deep Rooted Tree, 2021. Publication. Inkjet printing, 188 × 257 mm, 88 pages.
From 1973 to 1975, Deep Rooted Tree, under the leadership of Han Chang-ki (1936-1997), worked for three years on preparing the first issue. Deep Rooted Tree was first published in March 1976 and was discontinued in August 1980. This magazine is a movement in which the role of photographer, designer, director, editor, etc., was first defined and given a production model.
I have collected the entire issue of Deep Rooted Tree, which was part of the artist’s labor activism. To represent invisible labor, I archived all the pages of the first issue of the Deep Rooted Tree. The multiple scales of each page mark the hierarchy of the pages. At the same time, it remains vestiges and restores labor.
13Deep Rooted Tree, 2022. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable.
Acknowledging the fluid meanings of the term “archive” as it is used in different contexts, this project defines “archives” as repositories. In the gesture of enlarging images, traces and labor are generated and restored.
14News From New Haven, Moving Image. Processing, 40 seconds.
I change how we experience the data around us using streaming or simultaneous technologies to personalise and fluid the data. I created material jumps from the ground as active, even volatile from the surface where extensive data sets arranged. When I represent every minor discrepancy among data, I mimic the movement of the natural wind. By overlapping letters, I imagined a stencil–like change in color, type and pattern presents the world as a landscape of synthetic fragments.
15A Recording Score, 2022. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable
Since the early 2010s, I have been collecting recordings of everyday sounds. What I find powerful about sound is the way it leads me to create an image in my mind. For example, when I hear someone using a tool, I can listen to that it’s a kettle, what kind of kettle, how far away, where, etc. There’s so much information, even in half a second, I can tell. And so all the information in the sound is very complex and rich, and it immediately creates images in my mind based on what I hear.
A Recording Score was created to store the collection of recordings and to represent the relationships between the instructions and the score. I encountered a completely different reality by continuously translating each recording at different times. Translating the audio into text allows me to give them another reality. My translation is a sequence of my voice. I created this button that allows this sequence to play randomly as if other or many voices were reading the score.
It is a physical process, almost like walking through the website with a listener. The relationship between the audio and the text changes the structure of time and space. Mobility suddenly becomes this space where you can have a very individual experience while you are in the public space or while you are navigating.
335–640Magnetic Film, 2022. Publication. Inkjet printing, 112 × 182 mm, 612 pages.
Magnetic Film is a hard copy of various sources of A Recording Score recorded on cassette tape. The cassettes, scaled down to a different scale, have only one-way playback; my mobility and orientation information is embedded in the cassette, and the video disappears, leaving only the audio-text relationship. This is a part where people are deprived of one kind of sensory information in order to focus on other sensory information. This notion of separating the sound from the video was important to me in terms of what it does to the listener when they’re just listening to consent.
Using a microscope and a magnetic viewer, I captured 4779 images of magnetic field traces and created a collection of images and words. Stopping and starting a recording left traces, and the traces overlapped in the array; the physical traces are their own identity.
1–8, 641–1199Magnetic Film, 2022. Video. Three-channel digital video, color, sound, 2 minutes 54 seconds.
From a series of physical signatures of recordings, I translated these traces into screens through codings such as glitches, pixel sorting, and data moshing. I found this transition a long time ago when I dragged the old movie file to the desktop; the pixel of the movie screen was broken. So glitches, pixel sorting, and data moshing are the transitions between time and scale that evoke hierarchical or unequal relationships.
Instead of a flow, I wanted to represent the actual process that takes place where things do not seem to meet. I described that the transitions between the images shouldn’t be smooth because they represent the process by which the thing is completed in terms of the production system and the way it is produced. I was constantly thinking about this kind of translation process, and each time I translated; I got a completely different reality. The whole screen is active; this kind of screen where every little inch of it is changing as I see it, rather than being a performer or something like that.
1436, 1437Visiting Artist Lecture in Photography: Ed Atkins, 2022. Video. Single-channel digital video, color, sound, 14 seconds.
Ed Atkins tells a story by setting up an avatar in his work; I thought about the form in which a 3D character announces and continuously reproduces and interacts with itself to appear on the screen.
1531–1540The Live of Asako Iwama, 2022. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable. 
The Live of Asako Iwama has been created from 1 hour and 42 minutes. Conversation between Asako Iwama and me on February 11, 2022, at 8:00 a.m. New York time and 2:00 p.m. Berlin time. On the web, we are far from being aware of reading. The reader reads the interview through this web in two ways, actively and passively, separated by text and images in estimated reading and running time. The reader won’t be able to go back or undo it, and there will be no pause. A website designed this way suggests and restricts new reading methods for the reader.
26–34Ghost Particle, 2022. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable.
Inspired by Alex Galloway and Mark Tribe’s Starry Night , Ghost Particle is an alt interface that means alternative ways to visualize and access archives and texts. These Ghost Particles resemble stars generated from Google Calendar: from 05/22/2012 to 03/24/2023 to explore, wander, and search.
Let’s recognize the similarities and differences between an organizational structure like the grid and the image of the sky; the grid is perceived as neutral, but the image is an allusion. Therefore when a user approaches this work, they can’t help but bring their associations with the sky to the types of content they access. Furthermore, these stairs also change their status upon closer inspection with scale shifts, making them animated and cartoon-like. They ultimately reveal information that has yet another status as an image and requires another type of reading from the viewer. This elucidates a variety of diverse differences in readership and the fundamental infrastructure by which we access information.
1428, 1429Yale Photo Alumni Panel, 2022. Moving Image. Digital video, 5 seconds.
Ed Atkins tells a story by setting up an avatar in his work; I thought about the form in which a 3D character announces and continuously reproduces and interacts with itself to appear on the screen.
16–19Score Type, 2022. Typeface. Dimensions variable.
The Latin alphabet is designed for horizontal writing, and rarely, capital letters are stacked vertically on signage. Rather than “stacking” the Latin alphabet vertically, I planned the letters in a form that could be “written” vertically. In a multi-lingual type world, I expect the change of way of reading to be extended to the shift of thinking, and I decided to experiment with the possibility of form through the way of reading.
Nina and David Jonathan Ross, who made the typeface Bungee, hared that it was quite difficult technically to make the vertical typesetting work as a native feature so that typing the font would automatically go vertically. There is a way in font production to “force” the font to set vertically, and it doesn’t work 100% because it’s not the expected behavior for Latin. Therefore, on Nina and David’s advice, I designed the font meant for vertical typesetting “sideways” (like I drew it in my sketch). In font editor, the letters would all be sideways, and then for using it would have to rotate the text box.
I was looking for a type as a resource that shares the same design in horizontal and vertical versions of the font and which is not monospaced (all glyphs share the same width)  but ensures legibility. What Nina provided at the beginning was “Alphabet Centre Pompidou” in “Adrian Frutiger: Typefaces”. It’s a typewriter-ish typeface made for vertical and rotated setting, and the text mentions something about optimizing the horizontal/vertical contrast in the typeface for this vertical setting.
When typing letters with a typewriter, the text is not evenly typed, and the spacing between the lines is not the best, but the reason why it reads well is because of the various nature of the typewriter font. I checked typewriter specimens to find more material for that “Fine Line” typewriter face, the starting point. And typewriter did not require the letters to all be monospaced; it had few different widths that letters could take up, so many letters would still be grouped in the same width, which should be helpful for vertical settings.
The round terminal of the original typeface has been removed to provide a modern aesthetic so that it would not be affected by the shape of the rotation by 90-degree rotation. The last line version added is also a visual representation of the underlined device to obstruct the reading direction. Until the shape of the typeface was determined at the initial stage, I just drew it typically. Then, I used a script to rotate the glyphs 90 degrees and tried to figure out a way to automate the lateral rotation. And at some moment, I modified the shape of each version separately. There was also the question of how to draw the horizontal and vertical versions of the typeface family.
And one more thing to consider in the development process w as the question of the vertical writing program. The East Asian Adobe program provides automatic vertical writing, offering an automatic reading from right to left. Therefore I’m considering creating web pages for testing vertical writing and reading directions. The score typeface will be continuously modified, and I will document the various criteria and technologies considered in the process to provide clues.
20Dogleg Brick, 2022. Website. HTML, JavaScript, Dimensions variable.
Dogleg Brick was created from the perspective of navigation to view the works made during the semester. This is an instruction for reflecting meta-project; pieces are laid in the sequence that the beginning is the end, and the end is the beginning. Each project had many junctures and turnarounds. Scrolling creates a perspective, and each work is reflected in this perspective and flows in a coherent direction.
21, 1336–1380What is Research?, 2022. Publication. Offset lithography 10 × 7 inches, 108 pages, 400 edition.
This book is a Korean translation of an edited record of the conversation series titled What is Research? at Bard Graduate Center(BGC) in New York during Fall 2019.
What is Research? includes conversations with theater director Annie Dorsen, biomedical researcher Elodie Ghedin, sculptor Tom Joyce, physicist Hideo Mabuchi, poet Campbell McGrath, photographer and filmmaker An-My Lê, neuroscientist Sheila Nirenberg, geochemist Terry Plank, and historian Marina Rustow, all of whom grapple with questions about the nature of research from their varied perspectives.
I copyrighted the book through BGC, and then completed the translation project with Jiyoon Park, who studies art history. During the translation process, we tried to make sure that the reader could read the multilayered context of the various fields surrounding the research.
22School of Art Profile Image, 2022. Typeface. Dimensions variable.
I approached the profile image by thinking of a chatbot that generates a diagrammatic dialog of the school’s movement for the 2022-2023 academic year.
1200–1202This Manifesto is Silent. II, 2022. Installation. LCD Display, Acrylic on pillow, 5 inch, 28 × 20 × 6 inches.
This work is generated from newspaper articles that have been emailed to my Yale account every day since 2021. Information, statements, and quotes from subscribed news are translated into the words laid out in the same typeface on a small screen. Words are taken out of context and disconnected from their function. None of that content has more weight than the rest—we absorb it indiscriminately as though scrolling through our social media feeds. All that surrounds me finds its way back into a language in a democratic manner.
I granted further credence to the apparent arbitrariness of my selection. This screen works like a social-media algorithm, mining our data and producing the content we want to see microcosms of a glitching machine processing data culled from the internet. Myriad topics are spoken equally, revealing subtle synchronisms. Information, statements, and quotes from daily emails are translated into the words laid out in the same typeface. When taken out of context, languages merge into a screen equally, revealing subtle synchronisms.
The project has and will continue to evolve into multiple digital and physical forms.
23Non–Archive, 2022. Photographs. Inkjet printing 220 × 280 mm, 104 pages.
When I moved to the US last year, I destroyed and scanned hundreds of books. There are some ways to possess books in non-physical form–copy, destructive scan, non-destructive scan, and digital files (including e-books). I cannot distribute these, and they are for my use. As a migrant, I observed and practiced the transition from the physical to digital in a primitive way. I researched the history of the debate over used books in digital form to resist the e-book paradigm.
23Used Publications, 2022. Publication. Inkjet printing, 9.25 × 12.25 inches.
When I moved to the US last year, I destroyed and scanned hundreds of books. There are some ways to possess books in non-physical form–copy, destructive scan, non-destructive scan, and digital files (including e-books). I cannot distribute these, and they are for my use. As a migrant, I observed and practiced the transition from the physical to digital in a primitive way. I researched the history of the debate over used books in digital form to resist the e-book paradigm.
24Automate to Tools, 2022. Publication. Inkjet printing, 4.5 × 6.5 inches, 124 pages.
Automation has been around since the early 19th century and was used primarily in manufacturing processes. Automation has made jobs easier, faster, and more efficient for many businesses and individuals.
There are several automation tools available for graphic designers. Some popular automation tools include Photoshop Actions, Batch Processing, and Image Processor. These tools can help designers quickly process large batches of images, such as resizing, adding effects, and performing color corrections.
I’m archiving and editing automation that graphic designers can use to increase their liberty. The first book is a collection of features about Adobe. I plan to collect functions used in various programs, environments, and networks such as the terminal, directory, and Microsoft.
Plate Tectonic, 2022. Video. Single-channel HD video, color, sound
This is a short video essay of statements about the intermediate world. I compared this world to plate tectonics, and translated it as a realm of occupation. I like to compare this intermediate world to the scientific theory of plate tectonics. Graphic design’s screen and paper resemble a giant jigsaw puzzle. The outer surface is composed of primary and sub and meets at places called boundaries.
We mainly look at the surface of graphic design. We see a user-friendly interface and well-structured layout for conveying the information, but there is a world of intermediate that make a ceaseless movement that connects the worlds. I would take invisible and overlooked energies and mobility that make up this surface as material from “out there.” And I would assign components new roles and update their meanings. My practice is to reimagine the stereotypes and reality of graphic design and the self-indulgent design process.
I would take invisible and overlooked energies and mobility that make up this surface as material from “out there.” And I would assign components new roles and update their meanings. My practice is to reimagine the stereotypes and reality of graphic design and the self-indulgent design process. There is a world of intermediate that make a ceaseless movement that connects the worlds.
25Personal Copy, 2022. Programming. Phython, Dimensions variable.
I had been thinking about how to make up for the production method in the coming wave of profit maximization. The point to consider in the way of production is that experience and memory are subjective and abstract. Because of this, I sometimes need to improve in the area of repetitive design work.
The goal of this task is evident. It’s about crawling through my brain and experience to indicate what I need to check as I work. I imagine reducing my workload as a chatbot and a speaker specializing in graphic design. The ultimate goal is to have empathy for the labor. I have coded and built a dialog model for working on sentences.
Perhaps my work may become obsolete at some point in the future. It will likely play that role until that future comes. But even in the future, I will always try to observe the errors and glitches that arise from our experience.
1438–1441Visiting Artist Lecture in Photography: Baldwin Lee, 2023. Signage, Poster. Inkjet printing, 841 × 1119 mm each, 4 edition.
Copy Sans, 2023. Typeface. Dimensions variable.
1442-1529Body, Space, and Time, 2023. Performance. Single-channel HD video, color, sound 9 minutes 19 seconds.
In the course of its history, the line, once the trace of a continuous gesture, has been fragmented by modernity into a succession of points or dots. As a result, the world is perceived as a network of interwoven lines rather than a continuous surface. The network rises, spreads over the territory, and overrides the tangled paths. I continued the performance by synchronizing my body movements with creating the stitches on fabric.

· 1 cm per stitch = 54.7 mi (88 km) = 6 minutes
· 145 total stitches = 7,921 mi (12747 km) total distance = 15 hours 8 minutes total travel time
1203–1335Making, 2023. Video. Single-channel HD video, color, sound, 8 minutes.
In my grandfather’s more than 70 years of practice, there have been changes in his methods of making since the 1940s. In this video, he presents one of his past and present productions each. (The medicines in this video are fictitious.) I’ve been observing his work for a long time, and his practice is a kind of myth.
My grandfather’s work involves the body, movement, and fiction, and I believe the creative work I do today comes from him. He also worked many hours in many spaces with his customized drawers and tools. His space is a palace of memories for me, with the smell of medicinal herbs, bookshelves at different eye levels as I grew, and various machines.
By acknowledging the scale of time, I thought about how this practice is similar to a historically rooted practice. He uses muscle tools of intuition just like I use shortcuts and automation tools with my MacBook and software. There’s no hesitation in going for whatever the next thing might be because there’s so much intimate knowledge and understanding in the way he moves. He always put it on the scale and poured it in.
Making shows that he listened to his body, trusted his quality, and realized that whatever his hand was before would be the right amount. It is a connection between the space and how overwhelming any element could be, as well as the power within his body and the importance of listening to that. East historical, thinking about grandfather within a kind of legacy, has been around for a long time, has also been replaced by the archival nature and looking out into this dictionary are these potent references to catalog numbers.
In the film, I forced the viewer to make observations they wouldn’t have made otherwise. In some of the shots, I’ve created a perspective for the viewer aware of this contrast between what he’s doing and me filming it and putting it together in a certain way. It has a relationship between manufacturing and medicine versus this personal and intimate process.
1530, 1541Must a kettle boil?, 2023. Video. Single-channel HD video, color, sound.
Inspired by an element of Virginia Woolf’s The Years: 1880, my video work draws attention to the way in which we perceive, communicate, and filter information. It represents fiction consisting of conversations and scenes in which 1.8 liters of water are poured into an electric kettle and waited for 8 minutes to boil.
Work would combine computer-generated images with incomplete or interrupted writing excerpts through blurring, movements, immersive sound, and editing. Perhaps the video aims to understand this as the language of the intermediate world between real and virtual conditions and seeks to represent the idea of mediation as to everything that was heavily mediated.
Personal Copy, 2023. Installation, Publication, Website. LCD Display, Vinyl sheet, Offset lithography, Dimensions variable, 200 × 290 mm, 176 pages, 20 edition.
Swing, 2023. Installation. Dimensions variable.
  1. Jacques Derrida called the obsessive, repetitive energy of archives to find and return to the source of absent records and memories “archive fever.” It has been emphasized that the essence and value of archives lie in the future rather than in the past. Derrida, Jacques, and Eric Prenowitz. “Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression.” Diacritics, vol. 25, no. 2, 1995, p. 9., https://doi.org/10.2307/465144. Hal Foster referred to various works of contemporary art that bring materials and information from the past to the present and called them the archive impulse. Foster, Hal. “An Archival Impulse.” October, vol. 110, 2004, pp. 3–22., https://doi.org/10.1162/0162287042379847.
  2. Palma, Vittoria Di. Wasteland: A History. Yale University Press, 2014.
  3. Notation study for a performance of Robert Ashley’s Trios White on White, 1963.
  4. Bryan-Wilson, Julia. Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era. University of California Press, 2009.
  5. Mark Owens suggested a constructive misreading of the phrase of Jean-Luc Godard’s 1967 film, La Chinoise, which could be taken as a possible formulation for the role of graphic design more broadly. Owens, Mark. “Idées Vagues avec Images Claires.” Graphic, No.20 Poster Issue, 2011.
  6. According to Jane Bennett, seeing substances from a human point of view creates a hierarchical power relationship and is unequal. She said that for materials and humans to coexist together, we must think from the standpoint of matters. My practice aims to amplify oppressed voices and reveal overlooked phenomena in our society. Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Duke University Press, 2010.
  7. Jensen, Thilde. The Canaries. Lena Publications, 2013.
  8. Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Duke University Press, 2010. http://read.dukeupress.edu/books/book/chapter-pdf/641812/9780822391623-vii.pdf by Yale University user on 02 November 2021.
  9. “The Mystic Landscapes of Haegue Yang Magazine Moma.” The Museum of Modern Art, https://www.moma.org/magazine/articles/167.
  10. “Talk Series: Where Design Fails? Exploring Design Archives–November/December 2022.” Centre for Design History, 2 Dec. 2022, https://blogs.brighton.ac.uk/centrefordesignhistory/2022/10/14/talk-series-where-design-fails-exploring-design-archives-november-2022/.
  11. Tucker, Emma. “Hansje Van Halem on Why Architecture Needs More Graphic Design.” Creative Review, Creative Review, 19 Feb. 2019, https://www.creativereview.co.uk/does-architecture-need-more-graphic-design/.
  12. Ashley, Robert. Perfect Lives: An Opera. Dalkey Archive Press, 2011.
  13. “StarryNight.” NET ART ANTHOLOGY: StarryNight, https://anthology.rhizome.org/starrynight.
  14. “StarryNight.” Mark Tribe Studio, https://www.marktribestudio.com/starrynight/.
  15. Ross, David Jonathan. Bungee–Fonts for Multi-Color and Vertical Typography.”, https://djr.com/bungee.
  16. Frutiger, Adrian, et al. Adrian Frutiger-Typefaces: The Complete Works. Birkhäuser, 2021.
  17. “What Is Research?” Bard Graduate Center, https://www.bgc.bard.edu/publications/all/96/what-is-research. Research underlies nearly every aspect of our culture, with expansive investment poured into it and its significance acknowledged by governments, industries, and academic institutions around the world. Yet the idea, practice, and social life of research have not been a subject of study. Of the 164 million items in the catalog of the Library of Congress, only forty-three fall into the category of “Research—History.” To begin the task of understanding research as a concept and practice, Bard Graduate Center gathered a group of artists, scientists, and humanists—all recipients of MacArthur “genius” grants—for three evenings of discussion moderated by Peter N. Miller, who is also a MacArthur Fellow.
  18. Drucker, Johanna. Diagrammatic Writing. Onomatopee, 2022.
  19. Thirteen years ago, Green Apple Books produced a series of humorous web videos about the practical problems of using the Kindle, one of which depicts customers discovering the perils of the ‘first sale doctrine’ business model: customers are not allowed to resell or lend content which they have bought, a restriction enforced through various DRM(Digital Rights Management) copy protection schemes.
  20. Ludovico, Alessandro. Post-Digital Print: The Mutation of Publishing since 1894. Onomatopee, 2012.
  21. Tom Kabinet was operating an online platform Tom reading club. Tom Kabinet obtained e-books from official distributors or private persons and offered these e-books to its members via download for potentially permanent use. The e-books on this platform could therefore be referred to as ‘used’ or ‘second-hand’ e-books; these terms are not without contradictions if one considers the nature of digital copies. Tom Kabinet was aiming only to offer legally obtained e-books by attaching a digital watermark. The Court concludes by stating that the term original and copies. The distribution right only refers to copies put into circulation as physical objects. They decided that reselling e-books via download requires the permission of the right-holder.
  22. Kaiser, Ansgar. “Exhaustion, Distribution and Communication to the Public – the CJEU’s Decision C-263/18 – Tom Kabinet on e-Books and Beyond.” GRUR International, vol. 69, no. 5, 2020, pp. 489–495., https://doi.org/10.1093/grurint/ikaa043.
  23. Woolf, Virginia. The Years. Virginia Woolf: A Novel. Pan Books, 1948.


Next  journey...

A presentation of the project Translate Real Estate will take place as an exhibition in New York in the summer.


Thank you for joining us today and for listening.🤍

Thank you ...

to Dan Michaelson, Manuel Miranda, Mindy Seu, Nontsikelelo Mutiti, and Sheila Levrant de Bretteville for your mentorship and guidance.

to Adam Reid Sexton, American Artist, Cody Murphey, David J. Malan, David Jonathan Ross, Gee Wesley, Geoff Han, Ghazaal Vojdani, Jace Clayton, Jack Self, Jay Lim, Julia Novitch, Kameelah Janan Rasheed, Kymberly Pinder, Linda van Deursen, Mark Owens, Matthew Carter, Melanie Hoff, Morehshin Allahyari, Neil Goldberg, Nina Stoessinger, Rosa McElheny, Ryan Waller, Sadah Espii Proctor, Sarah Oppenheimer, Sasha Portis, Susan Sellers, and Tobias Frere-Jones, for your constructive guidance.

to my cohort at the Yale School of Art for your generosity and inspiration.

and to my family for your love and support.

Personal Copy was designed, written, edited, and published by Yuseon Park. Edition of 20 copies. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage retrieval system, without permission from the publisher.

Printed and bound by Segye Planning in Seoul, Korea.

The text is set in JL Pirelli by Karel Martens, Jungmyung Lee, and JL Impact Nieuw by Jungmyung Lee. The papers used are Munken Kristall and Invercote.

This book is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. It contains a selection of texts and works between 2021 and 2023